Modified Gross Lease vs Full Service

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Modified Gross Lease makes tenants responsible for utilities and expenses, whereas Full Service Lease covers operating expenses within the rental rate. In Modified Gross Lease, the landlord covers the remaining expenses, such as property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs. Understanding the differences between these lease types can help tenants and landlords make informed decisions about their commercial lease agreements.

Modified Gross Lease

A Modified Gross Lease is a commercial lease agreement where the tenant pays for their portion of utilities and other operating expenses. At the same time, the landlord covers the remaining expenses, such as property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs. Here are some of the essentials of a Modified Gross Lease:

  • Rent and Operating Expenses

    In a Modified Gross Lease, the tenant pays for their portion of operating expenses, such as utilities, janitorial services, and security. The landlord covers the remaining expenses, including property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs. The tenant's rent is generally calculated as a base rent plus a share of the operating expenses.

  • Calculating Operating Expenses

    The method for calculating the tenant's share of operating expenses can vary, but it is typically based on the percentage of the total building occupied by the tenant. The lease agreement should specify how the operating expenses are calculated and any caps or limits on the tenant's responsibility for these expenses.

  • Maintenance and Repairs

    The landlord is responsible for maintaining the common areas of the property, including building exteriors, parking lots, and landscaping. The tenant is generally responsible for maintaining their leased space and any fixtures or equipment installed by the tenant.

  • Renewal and Termination

    The lease agreement should specify the renewal and termination options for both the tenant and the landlord. Tenants may have the option to renew the lease at the end of the lease term, while landlords may have the right to terminate the lease under certain circumstances, such as non-payment of rent.

  • Subleasing

    The lease agreement should specify whether subleasing is allowed and any conditions, such as obtaining the landlord's approval.

Overall, a Modified Gross Lease balances the responsibility between the landlord and tenant for operating expenses and maintenance costs. It is important for both parties to carefully review and negotiate the lease agreement to ensure that it meets their needs and protects their interests. Tenants should also be aware of their responsibility for operating expenses and budget accordingly to avoid surprises.

Full-Service Lease

A full-service lease is an agreement between a lessor (the owner of a commercial vehicle) and a lessee (the person or company that wants to rent the vehicle) in which the lessor provides all necessary services, including maintenance, repairs, and insurance, for a specified period. Here are some essentials of a full-service lease:

  • Vehicle Selection

    The lessee can select the type of vehicle they need based on their specific requirements. The lessor may have various options, such as trucks, vans, and trailers.

  • Lease Term

    The lease term can be customized to fit the lessee's needs, typically one to five years. The lease can also include options to extend or terminate the lease early.

  • Maintenance and Repairs

    The lessor is responsible for providing all necessary maintenance and repairs to the vehicle, including routine servicing, tire replacements, and major repairs. This can be done through the lessor's in-house maintenance team or authorized repair facilities.

  • Insurance

    The lessor provides insurance coverage for the vehicle, including liability, collision, and comprehensive coverage. The lessee may also be required to maintain certain levels of insurance coverage.

  • Fleet Management

    The lessor can provide fleet management services to help the lessee optimize their vehicle usage and reduce costs. This may include services such as fuel management, vehicle tracking, and reporting.

  • Billing and Payment

    The lessor typically bills the lessee every month, and payments are due according to the terms of the lease agreement. The lease may include provisions for late fees or other penalties for missed payments.

  • End-of-Lease Options

    At the end of the lease term, the lessee may have the option to return the vehicle, extend the lease, or purchase the vehicle outright. The terms of these options should be spelled out in the lease agreement.

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Modified Gross Lease vs. Full Service Lease

Modified Gross Lease and Full-Service Lease are common commercial lease agreements, but they differ in the responsibilities and obligations of the landlord and tenant.

Modified Gross Lease

Under a modified gross lease, the tenant is responsible for paying a base rent amount plus a portion of the operating expenses, such as property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs. The specific expenses that the tenant is responsible for can be negotiated between the landlord and tenant and may vary depending on the property and lease agreement.

Some key features of a modified gross lease are:

  • The landlord retains control over the maintenance and repair of the property, but the tenant may be responsible for certain expenses related to these activities.
  • The tenant is typically responsible for their utilities, such as electricity, gas, and water.
  • The lease term may be fixed or renewable, but the tenant may be responsible for certain expenses related to renewing the lease, such as legal fees.

Full-Service Lease

Under a full-service lease, the landlord is responsible for providing all necessary services, including maintenance, repairs, insurance, and other expenses related to the property. The tenant pays a flat monthly rate covering all these expenses and the base rent amount.

Some key features of a full-service lease are:

  • The landlord is responsible for all maintenance and repairs, including routine servicing and major repairs.
  • The landlord provides insurance coverage for the property, including liability, collision, and comprehensive coverage.
  • The tenant typically does not have to pay additional expenses beyond the monthly rent amount.


The main difference between a modified gross lease and a full-service lease is allocating responsibilities and expenses between the landlord and tenant. In a modified gross lease, the tenant has some responsibility for operating expenses, while in a full-service lease, the landlord assumes all responsibility.

Another important consideration is cost predictability. With a modified gross lease, the tenant may be subject to fluctuations in operating expenses, while with a full-service lease, the tenant knows the exact amount they will be paying each month.

Generally, a full-service lease may be more convenient and predictable for tenants who do not want to deal with the day-to-day responsibilities of property maintenance and repair. However, a modified gross lease may be more flexible and cost-effective for tenants who can negotiate favorable terms and do not want to pay for services they do not need.

Key Terms

  • Lease Agreement: A legal document outlining the terms and conditions of a lease.
  • Base Rent: The minimum rent a tenant must pay to occupy a space, usually calculated on a per-square-foot basis.
  • Operating Expenses: Costs associated with operating and maintaining a commercial property, such as utilities, property taxes, insurance, and maintenance fees.
  • Modified Gross Lease: A commercial lease where the tenant pays for some operating expenses in addition to the base rent, but the landlord covers the rest.
  • Full-Service Lease: A commercial lease where the landlord covers all operating expenses, and the tenant pays a higher base rent to cover these costs.
  • CAM Charges: Common Area Maintenance charges, which are additional fees paid by tenants in a commercial property to cover the cost of maintaining shared spaces, such as parking lots, hallways, and elevators.


In conclusion, Modified Gross Lease and Full-Service Lease are two popular types of commercial lease agreements. Modified Gross Lease allows for greater flexibility in negotiating the allocation of expenses between the landlord and tenant and may be a good option for tenants who understand the property's operating expenses and can negotiate favorable terms.

On the other hand, Full-Service Lease provides a more predictable and convenient option for tenants, as the landlord assumes all responsibility for property maintenance, repairs, and other expenses.

Ultimately, the choice between these two types of leases will depend on the specific needs and preferences of the tenant, as well as the terms and conditions of the lease agreement. It is important for tenants to carefully review and negotiate the terms of any commercial lease agreement to ensure that their needs and interests are fully represented.

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